Substance abuse and drug trafficking are unquestionably major social concerns that merit the attention of government. Unfortunately, U.S. drug and crime policies have emerged which are grossly ineffective in terms of reducing demand. Still worse, these same policies which were born out of animus for minority groups and immigrants, have wrought disastrous consequences for individuals, families, and communities by establishing a system of mass incarceration that has laid waste to the promises of freedom and liberty enshrined in our Constitution. After briefly reviewing the history of the so-called “war on drugs” and considering its substantial ongoing costs to society, it will be clear that immediate action along the lines of policy overhaul and redressing individual harms is necessary. Ultimately, the social work profession is required as a matter of professional core values and ethics to lead the way of reform and rehabilitation.